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Six Types of Training and Development Methods
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The two most incessantly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It's normally impossible to show someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements different kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is regularly the only form of training. It is usually casual, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as a lot as she ought to, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training just isn't successful when used to avoid growing a training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to succeed in many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication versus interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These gadgets systematically present data to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed within the 1950s, it was regarded as helpful only for fundamental subjects. Right this moment the method is used for skills as numerous as air traffic management, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can be taught at their own tempo, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Instructional alternate options may be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance will be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Both television and film lengthen the range of skills that can be taught and the way info could also be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of strategies that mix audiovisual systems resembling closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new time period for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one in every of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world that are essential to produce each learning and the switch of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and different types of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that's, they characterize the real world's operational equipment. The principle goal of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that's, to reproduce within the training these processes that might be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to regulate the training surroundings, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in combat methods for hundreds of years. Almost all early enterprise games have been designed to teach primary enterprise skills, but more latest games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly could be considered the quintessential enterprise game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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